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This subject offers an overview on how law interacts with online digital platforms. It introduces students to different types of digital platforms and their business practices, as well as a selection of fundamental regulatory domains in the information economy.
In recent years online digital platforms have become a site of critical study. Early Utopian visions of the internet included open speech environments, anonymous interactions, and non-hierarchical networks. Today’s cyberspace, however, is deeply hierarchical, embedded in a surveillance and data-processing based economy, with work, social life, and commerce all channeled through increasingly powerful digital platforms. Online digital platforms now dominate activities like search, shopping, and social media, as well as coordinate offline activities like ride-sourcing and labour-hire. Some have suggested the massive power of digital platforms emerged under conditions of 'lawlessness'. Close analysis makes clear however, that law – its existence, interpretation, and enforcement – are all critical to how the digital economy is structured and how platforms monetize their position.
This subject explores different types of online digital platforms, the ways they monetize data, and how they exert power in the digital economy. Examples include controlling the visibility of websites, products, content, and people with ranking algorithms; renting access to repositories of intellectual property; facilitating double-sided marketplaces; and selling advertising. Understanding the platform economy means coming to grips with the development of large AI models, industrial scale data mining and refining, the monetization of user attention, and the ways platforms coordinate actors in multi-sided markets.
Through a selection of case studies highlighting ongoing regulatory controversies in different legal domains, this subject demonstrates how law both contributes to and limits the power and practices of platforms. Examples include how data protection and privacy laws shape consumer profiling and behavioural advertising; how accountability and transparency requirements regulate the visibility of ranking systems and other forms of algorithmic decision-making; how competition law manages monopolies and anti-competitive behaviour; and how labour law enables platforms to limit their obligations to workers.
Intended learning outcomes
On completion of this subject students should:
- Have an understanding of the different ways that online digital platforms operate in the information economy
- Appreciate how different legal ideas interact with of digital platforms, and how the interpretation and enforcement of law influences platforms' business practices
- Understand how regulation has developed over the years to assist platforms to monetize their dominant positions
- Capacity for self-directed learning, specifically the ability to plan work and use time effectively;
- Cognitive and analytical skills;
- Ability to speak about complex ideas in a clear and cogent manner;
- Awareness of diversity and plurality;
- Ability to write essays which develop structured argumentation;
- Capacity to judge the worth of their own arguments.
Last updated: 22 November 2023