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Health and development context in low and middle income countries (LMIC)
- Interrelationship between health and development.
- Measures of health and development (GDP, development indices, morbidity and mortality measures).
- Global disparities in health expenditures and health outcomes (eg. life expectancy, morbidity and mortality measures).
Health systems (HS) in LMICs
- Goals of health systems.
- Building blocks of health systems.
- Characteristics of health systems in LMICs and impact on health disparities.
- Health system strengthening: approaches, strategies, control knobs, policy influence
Health financing (HF) in LMICs
- The role of health financing (collecting and pooling funds and purchasing health services)
- Sources and mechanisms of collecting finances – pros and cons of alternatives.
- How much should be spent on health?
Using HF to achieve equity in LMICs
- Distribution of financial contributions, health burdens and resource allocation and utilization.
- Indicators and analytical tools for measuring distributions of costs and benefits of health expenditure within and between countries. Focus on financial contribution, distribution of resources and effective access to services.
- Case studies of HF strategies to improve access to services and health outcomes for the poorest.
Influencing health policy in LMICs
- Evolution of health financing policy for lower income countries (1970/80s: health for all; 1980s/90s: health sector reform; 2000s: universal coverage).
- Evidence-based health policy.
- Case studies of influencing policy for health sector reform. Including comparisons across countries.
Intended learning outcomes
Gain an understanding of:
- The specific characteristics of health patterns in LMICs and the social, economic and political contexts that impact on health outcomes and health policy.
- The characteristics of health systems in LMIC contexts and their impacts on health outcomes and health policy.
- Principles and theories for intervention in health systems.
- Health financing as an intervention to improve equity in health systems in LMICs.
- Strategies and approaches to influence policy of health system reforms in LMIC contexts.
Develop skills in:
- Using analytical tools for assessing the distribution of costs and health benefits of financial contributions and resource allocation.
- Using frameworks for assessing lower income country health system challenges and devising solutions.
- Applying evidence to achieve policy changes and health system reform.
- Critical and analytical thinking and problem solving skills.
- Finding, evaluating and using relevant information.
- Relevant numeracy skills, data analysis and interpretation skills.
- Written and oral communication skills.
- Working with others and in teams.
Last updated: 18 December 2020