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This subject aims to extend the fundamental concepts of heat transfer from that covered in CHEN20009 Transport Processes to include natural and forced convection and two phase systems. Mass transfer concepts are extended to unsteady state mass transfer and Fick's Second Law, prediction of diffusivity and of mass transfer coefficients. These fundamental concepts are then applied to the design of processes and equipment including shell and tube, air-cooled and plate heat exchangers, evaporator systems, membrane devices, binary distillation systems, gas absorbers and cooling towers. Experience in the use of appropriate simulation packages such as HYSYS for exchanger and distillation column design are included. This simulation work builds on the skills developed in CHEN20011 Chemical Process Analysis .
- Forced Convection: Use of heat transfer correlations to predict coefficients
- Heat Exchange: concept of an overall heat transfer coefficient, fouling factors; determination of the area required for a given heat duty, Heat exchanger design. Use of simulation packages such as HYSYS and ASPEN
- Free convection: discussion and application of Grashof Number and other dimensionless groups
- Condensation and Boiling: Fundamentals. Evaporation: various evaporator types and their advantages and disadvantages (forced circulation, film types); multiple and single effects; backward and forward feed; boiling point elevation; mechanical recompression; evaporator energy balances
- Mass Transfer: Unsteady state mass transfer and Fick's Second Law; prediction of diffusivity; dimensional analysis and equations of change for mass transfer
- Distillation: single-stage separations, equilibrium flash, differential distillation; multistage separations, operating lines, reflux; binary distillation, varying reflux ratio, minimum reflux, total reflux, optimum reflux, feed plate location, side streams, open steam; tray efficiency via overall and Murphree efficiencies. Use of simulation packages such as HYSYS
- Gas absorption: basic mass transfer mechanism; material balances, co-current and countercurrent flow, limiting L/G ratio; multistage absorption and the absorption factor method; continuous contact, transfer units, height of a transfer unit, calculation of number of transfer units. Humidification and cooling tower height calculation
- Membrane Systems: Microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Gas separation systems. Robeson’s bound. Electrodialysis and pervaporation. Membrane selection.
Intended learning outcomes
On completion of this subject the student is expected to:
- Apply the principles of heat transfer to solve heat transfer problems, particularly those involving two phase systems
- Assess quantitatively the performance of heat exchanger and evaporation equipment
- Apply the principles of mass transfer to solve mass transfer problems and to membrane separation processes
- Describe the concepts of equilibrium stage and continuous contactor analysis and apply these concepts to simple distillation and gas absorption problems
- Assess quantitatively the performance of simple, conventional distillation, gas absorption, membrane and cooling tower equipment
- Use simulation and spreadsheet software for the basic design of heat exchangers, absorption equipment, cooling towers and distillation columns
- Assess quantitatively the performance of gas absorption column, and understand the materials and energy balance and the mass transfer in the process.
- Ability to apply knowledge of basic science and engineering fundamentals
- In-depth technical competence in at least one engineering discipline
- Ability to undertake problem identification, formulation and solution
- Ability to use a systems approach to design and operational performance.
Last updated: 16 January 2021